Antarctic krill is arguably the largest single species marine biomass. The first scientifically backed proposition to utilize Antarctic Krill as a source of food and raw materials was published in Scientific American in 1958. However, a significant catch was not reached until the Soviet Union launched a large operation between 1970 and 1990. The most recent harvesting was initiated in the early 2000s. To secure a sustainable operation it is adequately and transparently regulated under the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) as well as by voluntary sustainability certifications. The catch is close to fully utilised as a valuable high quality source of protein, lipids and speciality by-products. Krill products are used in aquaculture, nutraceuticals and pharma and further developments are aiming at speciality ingredients and highly purified materials for wider application.